References and Literature
 F.A. Popp, K.H. Li, Q. Gu; Recent Advances in Biophoton Research and its Aplications, World Scientific Publishing Co. Singapore 1992.
 S. Kai, T. Mitani, M. Fujikawa; Morphogenesis and bioluminescence in germination of red bean, Physica A (Amsterdam) 210 (1994) 391-402.
 T. Ohya, H. Kurashige, H. Okabe, S. Kai; Early detection of saltstress damage by biophotons in red been seedling, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) 3696-3700.
 T. Makino, K. Kato, H. Honzawa, Y. Tachiiri, M. Hiramatsu; Ultraweak luminescence generated by sweet potato and Fusarium oxysporum interactions associated with a defence response, Photochem. Photobiol. 64 (1996) 953-956.
 G. Brassard; Bibliography of Quantum Cryptography, Université de Montréal, 1993.
 M. Bischof;Das Licht in unseren Zellen 2001.
 Used photomultiplier: Typ EMI 9558 QB.
 W.M.D. Lillge; Biophysics And the Life Process, 2001: www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/articles/su mm01/Biophysics/Biophysics
 A. Gurwitsch; History of Biophotonik or Biophotonics from a German point of view regarding Gurwitsch Bibliography under Gurwitsch and also Ruth (1977, 1979)
 F.A. Popp; About the coherence of Biophotons, 1999; also Published in: Macroscopic Quantum Coherence, Proceedings of an International Conference on the Boston University, edited by Boston University and MIT, World Scientific 1999.
 L.V. Belousov, A.B.Burlakov, N.N. Luchinskaia; Statistical and frequency-amplitude characteristics of ultra weak emissions of the loach eggs and embryos under the normal conditions and during their optic interactions. I. Characteristics of ultra weak emission in normal development and the optic role of egg envelope 2002. Ontogenez, 33(3), 213-221.
 F.A. Popp; Life interview for Science and Spirituality television station on Youtube, 2008.
 Different articles on ongoing research on Biophotons, Website International Institute of Biophysics, Neuss: www.lifescientists.de
Johan Boswinkel: www.biontology.com
Biophotons are light emissions from biological systems with intensities in the order of a few hundreds of photon /cm2 surface area, and an almost continuous spectrum within the optical range of at least 200-800nm . Therefore, it is believed that chemical reactions such as oxidation are the source of energy for biophoton emissions in living bodies. Accordingly, all organisms, including plants, constantly produce biophotons as part of their vital activities.
It has been reported that photon emissions vary according to differences in growth processes , and are elevated by environmental stresses  and disease response included by pathogen attack .
This research was performed to obtain the Academic Master Degree of Complementary and Integrated Health Sciences of the Interuniversity College for Health and Development, based in Graz, Austria. This thesis is established and written to report the authors research, including background information and state of knowledge on the associated subjects concerning our research; The Effects of Biophoton treatment, on isolated rat cortical neurons, through the Biophoton device according to J. Boswinkel.
In physics, a photon is an elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic interaction and the basic unit of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation. It is also the carrier for the electromagnetic force. The effects of this force are easily observable at both the microscopic and macroscopic level, because the photon has no rest mass; this allows for interactions at long distances. Like all elementary particles, photons are governed by quantum mechanics and will exhibit wave particle duality— they exhibit properties of both waves and particles. For example, a single photon may be refracted by a lens or exhibit wave interference with itself, but also act as a particle giving a definite result when quantitative momentum is measured.
The modern concept of the photon was gradually developed by Albert Einstein to explain experimental observations that did not fit the classical wave model of light. In particular, the photon model accounted for the frequency dependence of the energy of light, and explained the ability of matter and radiation to be in thermal balance .
The photon concept has led to momentous advances in experimental and theoretical physics, such as lasers, quantum field theory, and the possible interpretation of quantum mechanics. It has been applied to photochemistry, high- resolution microscopy and measurements of molecular distances. Recently, photons have been studied as elements of quantum computers and for sophisticated applications in optical communication such as quantum cryptography .
Biophotons are weak emissions of light radiated from the cells of all living things. A photon is a single particle of light. Plants, animals and humans have an intensity of their emission from some hundreds up to one thousand photons/second/cm², and an almost continuous spectrum within the optical range of at least 200 – 800 nm . All organisms, including plants, constantly produce photons as part of their vital activities. The light of the photon is too faint to be seen by the naked eye. The weakness of its light can be compared to candlelight seen at a distance of 20 km. Photons have been detected and verified without doubt by using a photomultiplier . As they appear from living cells, we call them Biophotons. The study field of Biophotons: Biophotonics, is part of Life Sciences, according to the International Institute of Biophysics, Neuss, Germany.
History and Research
Around 1923 the Russian scientist Professor Alexander Gurwitsch discovered an “ultra weak” photon emission from living systems (onions and yeast), he suggested connections between photon emission and cell division rate. He called this photon emission “mitogenetic radiation” . His experiments indicated the wavelength in the range of around 260 nm . After initial world-wide recognition in the 1920s and 1930s, some claims appeared that the “mitogenetic radiation” did not exist at all. Because of that and the subsequent political cataclysms in Europe and Russia, work on this phenomenon dropped almost to zero level. However in the 1950’s a group of Italian physicists with L. Colli made a very sensitive photomultiplier with which they discovered in the spectrum range from green to red light emitted from seedlings, corn and beans with photons in quantity of 10 to a 100 per second per cm² .
It was in 1974 that the German biophysicist Prof. Dr. Fritz-Albert Popp proved the existence of the photons. At that time he was looking for an understanding about the optical properties of the molecule Benzpyrene in relation to carcinogenicity. With Gurwitsch at hand with the mitogenetic radiation research, Popp concluded that if the assumed optical effect of Benzpyrene were correct, then there must be some kind of light source in the cell, and very weak photon ‘signals’ would be able to trigger drastic changes in the behaviour of cells.
With Popp’s photomultiplier, it was possible to prove that low-level light emissions are a common property of all living cells. It has different intensities for human, plant or animal cells, for different cell types, and it can vary from one moment to the next. It is not regular, but comes often as “photon explosion” (spikes), especially when the cells are irritated by outside means and in the case of cell death .
The results of Popp’s research also indicate that Biophotons originate from a coherent (or/and squeezed) photon field within the living organism, its function being intra and intercellular regulation and communication . The Russian scientist A.B. Burlakov repeated the experiments of Gurwitsch in the 1990’s and proved that there is Biophoton exchange and influence between fertilized fish eggs that were in optical contact divided by quartz glass filters .
Biophotons and DNA
According to Prof. Popp, the leading researcher of Biophotons in the last 35 years, light is constantly being absorbed and remitted by DNA molecules within each cell’s nucleus. The DNA-string has the optimal length for receiving and sending electromagnetic frequencies with its information. Beside this, these Biophotons create a dynamic, coherent web of light. A system that could be responsible for chemical reactions within the cells, cellular communication throughout the organism, and the overall regulation of the biological system, including embryonic development into a predetermined form. According to Popp in a live interview, to be seen on the internet , a chemical reaction in a cell can only happen if the molecule which is reacting, is excited by a photon. So the photon is necessary to stimulate a molecule to a chemical reaction. So every living cell is producing light.
By photosynthesis, where the photons are used to get energy, the coherence is extremely high. Coherence means that the photons can be super positioned, so that the message which is submitted by the photons, gets very clear .
The laser-like coherence of the Biophoton field is a significant attribute, making it a prime candidate for exchanging information in a highly functional, efficient and cooperative fashion, lending credence to the idea that it may be the intelligence factor behind biological processes. It is a known fact that the speed of light is faster than any chemical reaction.
Biophoton emissions will vary according to the functional state of the organism. If a disease such as cancer affects certain cells they will radiate a different photonic signature than healthy cells of the same type. In this way Biophotons can be a non-invasive tool for assessing the state of health or vitality. Applications can extend far into other areas like testing food and water quality, checking for chemical or electromagnetic contamination, or agricultural testing for products that improve crop resistance to disease. Biophysicists in many European and Asian countries are currently engaged in such research .
Popp’s Biophoton theories and concepts provide an intriguing and promising path for more international research, which could lead to major developments in our understanding of life, the mechanisms of healing and health for all living creatures, and the interconnection with the world around us.